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Last Update: April 13, 2024

automotive glossary Automotive Glossary

Automotive Glossary of Terms A to E

Automotive Glossary of Terms F to P

Automotive Glossary of Terms R to Z

Automotive Acronyms

ASE English-Spanish Glossary of Technical Terms (PDF file).

Automotive Training Resources

OEM service informationOEM Service Information & Technical Websites

Click HERE for List of OEM Vehicle Manufacturer Service Information Websites & Access Fees

red car Auto Repair Safety Tips (READ THIS FIRST!)

air conditioning articles Air Conditioning Articles

A/C Frequently Asked Questions

Air Conditioning Inspection Checklist

Air Conditioning Self-Test Quiz (Download or Print PDF file)

A/C Cooling Problem: Blows Warm Air Only No Cool Air

How To Recharge Your Car's Air Conditioner

Alternative Refrigerants for R-12


Flammable Refrigerants

Future Alternative Refrigerants That May Replace R-134a

Information about Retrofitting older vehicles with R-12 A/C systems to R-134a

Air Conditioning Service Best Practices (Procedures a repair shop should follow when servicing your A/C system)

MACS Recommended A/C Service Procedures (PDF file).

Air Conditioning Troubleshooting (General Tips)

Troubleshoot Automatic Climate Control System

A/C Compressor Failures

A/C Condenser Flushing

Compressor PAG Oil Application Chart

wheel alignment repair Alignment Articles

Wheel Alignment: Camber, Caster & Toe

Wheel Alignment Self-Test Quiz (Download or Print PDF file)

Fixing Common Alignment Problems

Strut Suspensions

Correcting Steering Pulls

Getting The Right Attitude: Restoring Ride Height

How To Align The Unalignable

Aligning Light Trucks & SUVs

Steering & Suspension Quiz

brake repair Brake Articles

Brake Repair

Brake Pad Installation Tips

Fixes For Common Brake Problems

No Brakes!

Brake Line Failure

Brake Warning Light (possible causes)

Low Brake Pedal (causes)

Brake Grease

Silencing Brake Squeal

Eliminating Brake Noise

Say No to Brake Noise

5 Car Noises You Should Not Ignore

Preventing Disc Brake Dust

About Ceramic Brake Pads

More on Ceramic Brake Pads

Update On Application Specific Brake Linings

Choosing Brake Friction Materials

Rating Aftermarket Brake Linings: D3EA Testing

Brake Rotors

Cautions on Composite Disc Brake Rotors

Disc Brakes

Disc Brake Repair

Drum Brake Service

Drum Brake Wheel Cylinder Inspection & Service

Brake Fluid: A Hot Topic

Bleeding Brakes

Bleeding ABS Brake Systems

Asbestos still a hazard

Servicing Brake Hydraulics

Brake Master Cylinder

Brake Balance & Electronic Brake Proportioning

Brake Calipers

Loaded Brake Calipers

Troubleshoot Power Brakes

Parking Brake Service

Electronic Parking Brake (EPB)

Big 3 Brake Symposium Notes - Oct 2002

Big 3 Brake Symposium Notes - May 2001

All About Antilock Brake Systems (ABS)

Antilock Braking Systems (1998 model year)

ABS Systems Come Under Fire

New ABS Diagnostic Testers

Pulling ABS Diagnostic Codes

Diagnosing ABS Wheel Speed Sensors

Chrysler Dodge Plymouth Minivan Bendix 10 Antilock Brakes

GM Delphi DBC-7 ABS Antilock Brakes

Honda Antilock Brakes

Honda Accord Rear Brake Wear Problem (2008 - 2010 models)

Jeep Bendix 9 Antilock Brakes

Kelsey-Hayes 4WAL Antilock Brakes

Traction Control

Electronic Stability Control


Brake System Self-Test Quiz (Downloadable PDF file)

cooling system repair Cooling System Articles

Cooling System Self-Test Quiz

Finding & Fixing Coolant Leaks

Servicing Your Cooling System

Cooling System Maintenance & Repairs

Coolant Recovery Systems

Cooling System Electrolysis Corrosion (causes & cures)

Radiator Repair & Replacement

Coolant Checks & Changes More Complicated These Days

Antifreeze (Universal Coolant)

Coolant Types

Your Temperature Warning Lamp Is On. What Should You Do?

Overheating: Causes & Cures

How To Diagnose & Replace A Thermostat

Coolant Sensors

Troubleshoot Electric Cooling Fan

Electric Cooling Fan Relay Problems

Troubleshoot Cooling Fan Clutch

Water Pump Diagnosis & Replacement

Belt & hose service

Serpentine Belts

Automatic Belt Tensioners

Kia Idler Pulley Noise

Heater Service

emission repair Driveability, Diagnostics & Emissions Articles

Poor Fuel Economy

Car Won't Start (Possible Causes & Quick Checks)

Troubleshoot Anti-Theft System

Diagnose Ignition Switch Problems

Start Engine Push Button Diagnosis

Keyfob Won't Start Car

Troubleshoot Intermittent Engine Problems

Check Engine Light OnBoard Diagnostics

Check Engine Light Troubleshooting Guide

More on Check Engine Lights & Fault Code Diagnostics

Ford P0171 & P0174 Lean Codes

5 Warning Lights You Should Never Ignore!

Other Warning Lights (TEMP, OIL, ALT/GEN, BRAKES, ABS, AIR BAGS, etc.)

Scan Tool Diagnostics

Controller Area Network (CAN) Diagnostics

CAN communication problem (what to do when the CAN system won't talk to your scan tool)

Mode 06 Diagnostics

Flash Reprogramming PCMs

Flash Reprogramming PCMs (more)

Powertrain Control Modules (PCMs)

Understanding Engine Management Systems

Making Sense of Engine Sensors

Air Temperature Sensors

Coolant Sensors

Crankshaft Position CKP Sensors

Understanding Oxygen (O2) Sensors

Oxygen Sensor Locations

Wideband O2 Sensors & A/F Sensors

Sensing Emission Problems (O2 Sensors)

MAP sensors

Mass Airflow MAF Sensors

Vane Airflow VAF Sensors

Throttle Position Sensors

Decoding Onboard Diagnostics


Most Common Trouble Codes (and what causes them)

Trouble Code Diagnostic Tips

All About Onboard Diagnostics II (OBD II)

OBD2 Basics Self-Test Quiz

OBD Monitor Not Ready

Understanding OBD II Driveability & Emissions Problems

Zeroing in on OBD II Diagnostics

Emission Controls: The Birth, Evolution and End of Automotive Emission Controls

Emissions testing update

Emissions Testing: Exhaust Analysis

Evolution of I/M 240

The Environmental Challenge Now Is CO2

Global Warming and Climate Change: What Do We Know Now?

Is water Vapor in Car Exhaust Affecting Our Weather? (January 2024)

Automotive Environmental Issues

The Unforeseen Environmental Impact of Air Conditioning

Fixing Emission Failures

How Fuel Injection Affects Emissions

Air/Fuel Ratios

Basic Emission Control Systems Overview

Emission Control Basics Self-Test Quiz (Download or Print PDF file)

Catalytic Converters

Catalytic Converter Thefts

Troubleshoot a P0420 Catalyst Code

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV)

EVAP Evaporative Emission Control System

Gas Cap Loose?

Spark Knock (Detonation)

What Is Detonation?

How Electronic Fuel Injection Works

Fuel Injection Self-Test Quiz (Download or Print PDF file)

How Fuel Injection Affects Emissions

What Is Fuel Trim?

What Is Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)?

Toyota Fuel Injection

Troubleshoot Fuel Injectors

Troubleshoot Electronic Fuel Injection Problems

Fuel System Frequently Asked Questions

Fuel System Diagnostics: Finding the Best Approach

Fuel Pump Diagnosis Tips from Carter (PDF file).

How To Diagnose & Repair Carburetor Problems

Carburetor or EFI: Which Is Best?

Honda Keihin Carburetor Repair

Bad Gas Update 2006

1998 Saturn SC2 intermittent cranks no start problem

The Scoop On Scopes (Diagnostic Storage Oscilloscopes)

Distributorless Ignition Systems

Coil-Over-Plug Ignition Systems

Test Your Knowledge: Ignition System Quiz

Troubleshoot Idle Speed Control System

Driveability Diagnosis: Misfires

Misfire Diagnosis Chrysler 3.5L V6

Idle Surge (cause & cure)

Ignition Coil Diagnosis & Testing

Diagnosing Dead On Arrival Vehicles

Troubleshooting with Temperature

Troubleshoot electrical problems

Electrical Loads for Automotive Systems, Lighting and Accessories

Finding & Fixing Vacuum Leaks

What's a Tune-Up Today?

Don't Neglect the Spark Plugs

Why Spark Plugs Still Need To Be Replaced

Spark Plug Fouling

Original Equipment Spark Plugs, Are They Best?

Ruthenium Spark Plugs

Ford Motorcraft Spark Plug Breakage Problem (2004 - 2008 Ford Trucks w/5.4L V8, & 2005 - 2008 Mustang GT with 4.6L V8)

Bosch Platinum Plus 4 "Forever" Spark Plugs

Light-Duty Diesel Diagnosis

Diesel Piston Damage Diagnosis

GM Duramax Diesel Warranty Issues

Diesel Fuel Treatments

battery, starter, alternator repair Electrical, Battery, Starting & Charging System Articles

Battery, Charging, Starting Systems Self-Test Quiz

Battery Safety (Read First!!!)

Hybrid Safety Hazards

Car Fires

Battery FAQs

Is Covid-19 Killing Your Car Battery & Alternator?

How to Test Your Car Battery

Diagnosing A Battery That Runs Down

Battery Replacement

Battery Disconnect Problems (Read This BEFORE Disconnecting or Replacing Your Battery)

Charging System Checks (alternator testing)

Starting & Charging System Troubleshooting

Alternator Failure Causes

How To Replace an Alternator

More on Starters

What You Should Know About Rebuilt Alternators & Starters

High Output Alternators (Why You May Need One)

Voltage DropTesting

Troubleshoot electrical problems

Automotive Electrical Circuits

Electrical System Basics Self-Test Quiz

Power Centers: Relays & Fuses

Troubleshoot Anti-Theft System

Key Fob Remote Won't Unlock Door

Troubleshoot Electronic Instrument Cluster

Troubleshoot Power Windows

Troubleshoot Headlights

Lights (headlights & bulbs)

High Intensity Discharge (HID) Headlights

Headlight Frequently Asked Questions

Stop-Start Systems

engine repair Engine Articles

Buick 3800 Engine Diagnosis

Chevy Aveo 1.6L Timing Belt Replacement

Chrysler 3.5L V6 Engine Service

Chrysler/Mitsubishi 3.0L V6 Engine Service

Chrysler Neon 2.0L Engine Service

GM Timing Belt Replacement

Ford Timing Belts & Chains

Ford 3.0L Duratec V6 Engine Diagnosis

Ford EcoBoost V6 Engine Valve Failure

Toyota & Honda Timing Belts

Cadillac Northstar V8 Engine Service

Engine Replacement Issues

Engine Repair Options

Engine Components Self-Test Quiz (Download or Print PDF file)

Diesel Piston Damage Diagnosis

GM Duramax Diesel Warranty Issues

Motor Mounts

Saturn Vibration Caused by Bad Engine Mount

Engine Rebuilding Tips

Horsepower & Torque

Engine Balancing

Replacing Internal Engine Parts

Engine Displacement (Bore and Stroke)

Cylinder Bore Honing Techniques

Cylinder Bore Surface Finishes (by the numbers)

Timing Chains & Belts

Variable Valve Timing

Ford Variable Cam Timing Codes

Timing Chain Replacement (Mazda & Ford 3.0L DOHC V6)

Aftermarket Timing Belt Warranty Warning

Timing Belts: Is Your Engine and Interference Engine?

About Camshafts & How To Choose a Camshaft

New Gasket Sealing & Resurfacing Requirements for Today's Engines

Cast Iron Cylinder Head and Block Crack Repairs

Valve Guide Repairs

Valve Seat Repairs

Causes of Valve Failures

Diagnose Weak Valve Springs

OHC Cylinder Head Components

OHC Cylinder Head Repairs

Cylinder Head Resurfacing

Tracking Down Causes of Engine Failure

Preventing Repeat Head Gasket Failures

Why Head Gaskets Fail

Head Gasket Failure: Common Causes

How to Fix a Leaky Head Gasket

Cylinder Head Bolts

Head Bolts (Torque-to-yield TTY)

Torque Wrench (how to use)

How to Remove Nuts & Bolts

Engine Oil Pressure Warning Light On

Troubleshoot Low OilPressure

Oil Pump Diagnosis

Oil Pumps: The Heart of the Engine

Oil Pumps High Flow

Do You Really Need a High Volume Oil Pump?

What Every Technician Should Know About Engine Bearings

Evolution of Piston Design

Piston Rings: Stock & Performance

Rings of Steel: Update On Piston Ring Technology

Piston Rings: Stock & Performance

Piston Ring End Gap Recommendations

Compression Ratio

Engine Compression Testing

Engine Leakdown Testing

Measuring Blowby

Causes of High Oil Consumption"

Engine Oil Leaks

Exhaust Smoke (various causes of)

Diagnosing Engine Noise

Engine Noise in Dodge Caravan & Chrysler Minivans

5 Car Noises You Should Not Ignore

exhaust repair Exhaust Articles

Troubleshoot Exhaust Problems

How to Check Exhaust Backpressure

Troubleshoot a P0420 Catalytic Converter Code

Catalytic Converter Testing

How to Replace a Muffler

Performance Mufflers

FWD repair Front-Wheel Drive Articles

CV Joints & FWD shafts, part 1: Basics

CV Joints, part 2: Service & Repair

More About CV Joint and Halfshaft Service

How CV Joints are Remachined

Torque Steer in FWD Cars

Do You Really Need All-Wheel Drive (or 4WD)?

fuel injection repair Fuel Related Articles

Fuel Contamination: What Happens If You Put The WRONG Fuel In Your Car

Gas Cap Loose?

Gas Pains -- High Fuel Prices and What You Can and Can't Do About It

Fuel Saving Tips from the Car Care Council

My Advice On Gas-Saving Gadgets

About Alternative Fuels

E85 Ethanol Alcohol Alternative Fuel

What is E15?

How To Diagnose & Repair Carburetor Problems

Mechanical Fuel Pumps

Electric Fuel Pumps

Fuel Pump Diagnosis

How To Replace an In-Tank Electric Fuel Pump

Troubleshoot Fuel Gauges

How Electronic Fuel Injection Works

Air/Fuel Ratios

What Is Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)?

Toyota Fuel Injection

Troubleshoot Fuel Injectors

Troubleshoot Electronic Fuel Injection Problems

Fuel System Diagnostics: Finding the Best Approach

Diagnosing Returnless Electronic Fuel Injection Systems

Intake Valve Deposits in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

Gasoline Fuel Treatments

Troubleshooting & Cleaning Fuel Injectors

Fuel Filters

Electronic Throttle Control

Diagnose Cruise Control

Bad Gas Update 2006

Fuel Octane Ratings & Recommendations

Turbocharger Diagnosis & Repair

Basics of Supercharging

Diagnosing An Engine that Won't Crank or Start

Finding & Fixing Engine Vacuum Leaks

Fuel Pump Diagnosis Tips from Carter (PDF file).

Gasoline Quality Guide for Technicians (PDF file).

ignition diagnosis Ignition & Spark Plugs Articles

Spark Plug Technology

Don't Neglect the Spark Plugs

Why Spark Plugs Still Need To Be Replaced

Spark Plug Wires

Analyzing Ignition Misfires

Engine Won't Start, No Spark

Spark Plugs & Ignition Performance

Chevy Firing Orders

Chrysler Firing Orders

Ford Firing Orders

Distributor Ignition Systems

Distributorless Ignition Systems

Don't Use Ordinary Spark Plugs with Waste Spark DIS Ignition Systems

Coil-Over-Plug Ignition Systems

Multi-Coil Ignition Systems

Ignition Coil Diagnosis & Testing

Diagnosing Dead On Arrival Vehicles

motor oil service Lubrication & Maintenance articles

Preventive Maintenance Chart

What Every Motorist Needs To Know About Motor Oil

New Motor Oil Specifications 2020

Motor Oils & Lubricants

How Often Should You Change Your Oil?

How To Change Your Oil

Certified Master Technicians Speak Out On Oil Change Intervals - June 2006

API Motor Oil Classifications

Watch Out for Obsolete "SA" Motor Oils (PDF file).

Motor Oil Additives

ZDDP - What is it & Why do you need it?

Motor Oil Viscosity

Re-Refined Motor Oil

Synthetic Motor Oil

Troubleshoot Low Oil Pressure

Oil Pump Diagnosis

Oil Pumps: The Heart of the Engine

Oil Filters

Car Maintenance: Changing FLuids, Filters, Belts & Hoses

Preventive Maintenance

5 Things Your Car May Need Now!

5 Things Your Car May Not Need

5 Ways To Save Money on Auto Repairs

BMW's Condition Based Service System

Winterizing Tips

How To Open A Frozen Car Door

Summerize Tips for Hot Weather Driving

Recommended Service Intervals from the Car Care Council (PDF file)

Replace Your Windshield Wipers

Automatic Transmission Fluid (types and applications)

Regular Fluid Flushes Good for Transmissions

Underhood Maintenance: Fluids, Filters, Belts & Hoses

Check Your Air Filter

Ford Focus PZEV 150K Sealed Air Filter

Cold Air Intake Systems

Cabin Air Filters

auto tech Misc. Articles

Auto Repair

Car Repair

Car Repair Advice

Automotive Tools for Repairing & Maintaining Your Car

Cordless Power Tools: Can They Replace Pneumatic Tools?

How to Weld Aluminum

Common Car problems (by symptom)

What Goes Wrong With Cars (and When)

Most Often Replaced Car Parts

Vehicle Reliability Ratings

How To Avoid Auto Repair Fraud, Scams and Rip-offs

Update on the Motorist Assurance Program (MAP)

New Car Lemon Laws

How Much Should It Cost To Fix Your Car?

Don't Get Overcharged for Auto Repairs

Auto Repair Facts for Consumers Provided By the Federal Trade Commission (FTC)

How to Pay for Auto Repairs

New Car Warranty Coverage: What Is Covered, What Is Not

Got Car Trouble?

Where To Buy Auto Parts?

Watch Out for Counterfeit Auto Parts

Troubleshoot Odors Inside Your Car

Getting a Trailer Hitch How To Choose & Install one that is Right for You)

Repairing & Maintaining Trailer Brakes (mechanical & electric)

Safe Travel Tips

How To Buy A Good Used Car (and NOT a Lemon!)

Used Car Inspection Checklist (PDF file)

Used Car Dealer Tricks (How NOT to get cheated on the next used car you buy!)

My Advice for Selling, Trading or Getting Rid of Your Old Car or Truck

Used Car Information Resources

Insurance Resources

Speeding is NOT a Crime!!

Preventing Auto Theft

Study Finds Toxic Chemicals in Car Interiors

Defensive Driving Tips

Telematics (What Is It?)

Telematics: The Connected Car

Automotive Technician Training Resources

Test Your Automotive Knowledge Quizzes

Crappy Cars I Have Owned

My Favorite Cars

See Carley's BLOG for more topics

new vehicle technology New Vehicles & Technology Articles

Self-Driving Cars & Driverless Autonomous Vehicles: The Next Big Thing?

Should You Buy a Hybrid or Electric Car?

The Electric Car Revolution (Updated 04/2023)

ICE versus EV: It's a No_Brainer! (New 12/2022)

Which Costs More to Replace? A Car Engine or EV Battery?(New 01/2024)

Which is Better? a Diesel Engine or a Gasoline/Electric Hybrid?

Clean Diesel Technology

Biodiesel vs Diesel: Which Is Best?

What Is Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)?

Who Killed GM's EV1 Electric Car?

Electric Hybrid Vehicles: Toyota Prius - first generation

Hybrid Safety Hazards

Hybrid Vehicle Service Tips

Honda Civic Hybrid Battery Problems

Toyota Prius Diagnostics

auto repair safety Safety Related Articles

Recalls Don't Ignore Them!

Active Safety Systems

Car Fires

Common Sense Auto Repair Safety Tips

COVID-19 Virus and Your Car

Distracted Driving Poses Safety Risk

Drunk Driving: the Dangers, Deaths & DUIs

Driving Safety: How to Keep Yourself and Your Passengers Safe

Auto Accidents: Mechanical Problems That Increase Your Risk

Toyota Unintended Acceleration: Possible Causes

Toyota Recalls 2005 to 2008 Corolla & Matrix for Defective Engine Computer

Windstar Rear Axle Failure Recall

Battery Safety (Read This Before Jumping Starting, Charging or Replacing a Battery!)

Hybrid Safety Hazards

Hybrid Safety Information on Toyota Prius & other Toyota Vehicles

Milestones in Automotive Safety

Airbags & Crash Sensors

Airbag Recalls

NHTSA vehicle safety recalls

Study Finds Toxic Chemicals in Car Interiors

Tire Safety

Electronic Stability Control

Vehicle Crash Test Safety Ratings

steering and tire repair Steering, Suspension & Tire Articles

Electric Power Steering

Power Steering Fluid

Variable-Assist Power Steering Systems

Troubleshoot Rack & Pinion Steering

Rack & Pinion Steering Inner Tie Rod Sockets

Correcting Steering Pulls

Torque Steer in FWD Cars

Do You Really Need All-Wheel Drive (or 4WD)?

Toyota Steering Recall

Watch Out For Old Tires

Used Tires - Are They Safe?

Why Tires Fail

What To Do If You Have A Flat Tire

Run-Flat Tires

Floor Jacks & Jack Stands (How to Safely Raise Your Vehicle)

Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS)

TPMS Warning Light

Ford F150 Tire Pressure Monitoring System

Diagnose Tire Problems

Tire Wear (What to look for, how to reduce it)

Tires - When to Replace & What to Buy

Tire Dots: What Are They For?

Tire Rotation: When & How To Rotate Your Tires

Tire Inflation tips

Tire Safety

Tire Care Survey Results

Tire Valve Stems

Curing wheel & tire vibrations

Wheel Balancing

Diagnosing Causes of Suspension Vibrations

Wheel Alignment: Camber, Caster & Toe

Diagnosing Ride Control Problems

Strut Suspensions

Ball Joints: Inspection & Replacement Tips

Steering & Suspension Quiz

Tire Inflation Tips from Firestone (PDF file).

Tire Rotation Tips from Bridgestone (PDF file).

Sealed Wheel Bearing Hub Units

Wheel Bearing & Seal Service

transmission repairTransmission, Clutch and Driveline Articles

Automatic Transmission Fluid & Filter Service

Automatic Transmission Fluid (types and applications)

Diagnosing Automatic Transmission Complaints

Automatic Transmission Slipping

About Electronic Automatiuc Transmissions

Chrysler 45RFE Automatic Transmission Shift Problems

Ford AX4S Automatic Transmission (Windstar & Taurus)

2021-22 Hyundai & KIA Dual Clutch Automatic Transmission Recall

Torque Converters (basic operation & diagnosis)

High Performance Torque Converters

Automatic Transmission Self-Test Quiz (Downloadable PDF file)

Common Clutch Problems

Clutch Service

Diagnosing & Replacing a Faulty Clutch

Clutch Installation Tips from LUK (PDF file)

Flywheel Resurfacing

Import Manual Transmission & clutch Service

Wheel Bearing & Seal Service

Sealed Wheel Bearing & Hub Units

4WD Locking Hub Service

More on Servicing 4WD Locking Hubs