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Updated: May 22, 2023

Auto Repair Information Topics:

5 Warning Lights You Should Never Ignore!

5 Car Noises You Should Not Ignore

5 Ways To Save Money on Auto Repairs

5 Things Your Car May Need Now!

5 Things Your Car May Not Need


ABS Scan Tools


Accidents: Mechanical Problems That Increase Your Risk

Active Safety Systems


Airbags & Crash Sensors

Airbag Recalls

Air Conditioning

Air Conditioning Self-Test Quiz (Download or Print PDF file)

Air Conditioning Frequently Asked Questions

Air Conditioning (alternative refrigerants)

Air Conditioning (automatic climate control systems)

Air Conditioning Compressors (causes of failure)

Air Conditioning Compressors (flushing)

Air Conditioning (Inspection Checklist)

Air Conditioning (how to recharge)

Air Conditioning (not cooling)

Air Conditioning (MACS recommended service procedures)

Air Conditioning (retrofitting older R12 systems to R134a)

Air Conditioning Service Equipment

Air Conditioning Service Best Practices

Air Conditioning Troubleshooting (General Tips)

Air Filter

Air Filter (Ford Focus PZEV 150K Sealed Air Filter)

Air/Fuel Ratios

Airflow Sensors (MAF)

Airflow Sensors (VAF)

Air/Fuel Ratio Sensors (wide ratio O2 sensors)

Air Ride Suspensions

Air Temperature Sensors

Alignment (wheel)

Alignment Problems

Alignment (truck & SUVs)


Alternative Fuels

Alternative Refrigerants

Alternators (high output)

Alternator Failure Causes

Alternators (How To Replace)

Alternator Testing

Alternator Troubleshooting

Aluminum (How to Weld)

Antifreeze (different types)

Antifreeze (universal)

Antilock Brakes (ABS)

Antilock Brake Systems Application List

Antilock Brake Codes (how to read)

Antilock Brakes (How to Bleed System)

Antilock Brakes (Bendix 9 Jeep)

Antilock Brakes (Bendix 10 Chrysler)

Antilock Brakes (Delphi DBC-7 GM)

Antilock Brakes (Honda)

Antilock Brakes (Kelsey-Hayes RWAL/RABS)

Antilock Brakes (Kelsey-Hayes 4WAL)

Antilock Brakes (Teves Mk20)

Anti-Theft System (troubleshoot)


Auto Insurance

Automatic Locking Hubs (4WD)

Automatic Transmission Fluid (types and applications)

Automatic Transmission Repair

Automotive Accessories

Automotive Electrical Circuits

Autonomous Vehicles

Auto Parts (Counterfeit)

Auto Parts (Most Often Replaced)

Auto Parts (Where to buy)

Auto Repair

Auto Repair Bills (how to pay them)

Auto Repair Costs

Auto Repair Fraud & Ripoffs

Auto Repair Guidelines

Auto Repair Manuals & Books

Auto Theft Prevention


Balancing (wheel)

Ball Joints

Battery & Electrical System

Battery, Charging, Starting Systems Self-Test Quiz

Battery Frequently Asked Questions

Battery & Alternator Failure Due to Infrequent & Short Trip Driving

Battery Diagnosis

Battery Disconnect Cautions & Problems

Battery Jump Starting

Battery Replace

Battery Runs Down

Battery Safety

Battery Testing & Recharging

Bearings (engine)

Bearings (wheel, sealed hub)


Belts (Serpentine)

Belt Tensioners

Big 3 Brake Symposium Notes Oct 2002

Big 3 Brake Symposium Notes May 2001

Biodiesel vs Diesel: Which Is Best?

Blog page


BMW's Condition Based Service System

Bolts (How to Remove Nuts & Bolts

Bosch Platinum +4 Spark Plugs


Brakes (antilock)

Brake Balance & Electronic Brake Proportioning

Brake Bleeding

Brake Bleeding (ABS)

Brake-By-Wire Electronic Braking Systems

Brake Calipers

Brake Calipers (loaded)

Brake Drums

Brake Dust

Brake Failure (NO Brakes!)

Brake Fluid

Brake Hydraulics

Brake Line Failure

Brake Grease

Brake Master Cylinder


Brakes (disc)

Brakes (parking)

Brakes (power)

Brake Pad Installation Tips

Brake Problems

Brake Noise

Brake pads (ceramic)

Brake Pads (choosing the best replacement pads)

Brake Repair

Brake Rotors

Brake Rotors (composite)

Brake Rotors (design)

Brake Rotor Service

Brake Squeal

Brake Squeal (more)

Brake System Self-Test Quiz (Downloadable PDF file)

Brake Warning Light On

Brake Wear Problem (2008-2010 Honda Accord)

Buick 3800 Engine Diagnosis


Cabin Air Filter

Calipers (how to diagnose and repair)

Calipers (loaded)

Camshafts (choosing a performance cam)

CAN communication problem with scantool

CAN Codes

Car Accidents (causes of)

Car Questions & Answers

Carburetor Problems

Carburetor or EFI: Which Is Best?

Carburetor (Honda Keihin Repair)


Car Door Frozen

Car Fires

Car Care, Lubrication & Maintenance

Car Repair Advice

Car Trouble

CARLEYSOFTWARE (Automotive Training Guides)

Link to CarleySoftware

Car Won't Start

Catalytic Converters

Catalytic Converters (troubleshooting a P0420 code)

Catalytic Converter Thefts

Ceramic Brake Pads

Ceramic Brake Pads (more)

Charging System

Charging System Checks

Check Engine Light

Check Engine Light On

Chevy Engine Firing Orders

Chrysler Firing Orders

Clean Diesel


Clutch Diagnosis & Replacement

Clutch Installation Tips from LUK

Clutch Problems

Clutch Service

CO2 Emissions (global warming issues)

Coil-Over-Plug Ignition Systems (COP)

Cold Air Intake Systems

Common Car problems and Solutions

Compressors (A/C)

Compressor PAG Oil Application Chart

Compression Ratio

Compression Testing

Computerized Engine Control Systems

Controller Area Network (CAN) Diagnostics

Coolant (different types)

Coolant Leaks

Coolant Recovery Systems

Coolant Sensors

Cooling System Electrolysis Corrosion (causes & cures)

Cooling System Self-Test Quiz

Cooling System Service

Cooling System Service Equipment

Cooling Fan (electric)

Cooling Fan Relay Problems

Cooling Fan (mechanical)

Cooling System

Counterfeit Auto Parts

COVID-19 Virus and Your Car

Crack Repair

Crankshaft Position Sensors (CKP)

Crappy Cars

Crash Test Safety Ratings

Cruise Control

CV Joints & FWD shafts (basics)

CV Joints (service)

CV Joints (more on service)

Cylinder Bore Honing Techniques

Cylinder Bore Surface Finishes (by the numbers)

Cylinder Bore Surface Finish (Plateau)

Cylinder Head Crack Repairs (cast iron)

Cylinder Head Components

Cylinder Head Resurfacing

Cylinder Head Resurfacing (more)

Cylinder Misfire


Defensive Driving

Detonation (causes of)

Diagnostic Trouble Codes (code numbers & definitions)

Diesel Diagnosis

Diesel Fuel Treatments

Diesel Piston Damage Diagnosis

Diesel vs Hybrid

Diesel Technology

Diesel Warranty Issues (GM Duramax)

Digital Storage Oscilloscopes (DSO)

Disc Brakes

Disc Brake Repair

Distracted Driving Poses Safety Risk


Distributorless Ignition Systems (DIS)

Distributorless Ignition Systems (multi-coil)

Driving Safety: How to Keep Yourself and Your Passengers Safe

Drum Brakes

Drunk Driving: the Dangers, Deaths & DUIs


E15 Ethanol Gasoline Fuel Blend

E85 Ethanol Alcohol Alternative Fuel

Electrical System Basics Self-Test Quiz

Electrical Circuits

Electrical Loads for Automotive Systems, Lighting and Accessories

Electrical System Power Centers, Relays & Fuses

Electrical System Troubleshooting

Electric eBikes: What to Consider Before You Buy

Electric Car (General Motors EV1)

Electric Car (Should You Buy One?)

Electric Car Revolution

Electric Motors Versus ICE Engines: What's the Difference? (new technology)

Electric Power Steering

Electronic Braking Systems

Electronic Fuel Injection Basics

Electronic Throttle Control (ESC)

Emission Control Systems

Emission Control Basics Self-Test Quiz (Download or Print PDF file)

Emission Controls & Emissions Problems

Emission Failures

Emissions Testing

Emissions Testing: Exhaust Analysis


Engine Balancing

Engine Compression Testing

Engine Components Self-Test Quiz (Download or Print PDF file)

Engine Diagnosis & Repair

Engine Diagnosis Buick 3800 V6

Engine Diagnosis Ford 3.0L Duratec V6

Engine Displacement

Engine Failure (causes)

Engine Frequently Asked Questions

Engine Hesitates or Stumbles When Accelerating

Engine Management System

Engine Misfire

Engine Misfire P0300 Code

Engine Noise

Engine Noise in Dodge Caravan & Chrysler Minivans

Engine Overheating

Engine Pings or Knocks When Accelerating

Engine Problems (intermittent)

Engine Repair Options

Engine Rebuilding Tips

How to Rebuild Engine (replacing internal engine parts)

Engine Replacement Tips

Engine Service (Cadillac Northstar V8)

Engine Service (Chrysler 3.5L V6)

Engine Service (Chrysler/Mitsubishi 3.0L V6)

Engine Service (Chrysler Neon 2.0L)

Engine Service (OHC Cylinder Head Repairs)

Engine Sensors (engine management systems)

Engine Sensors (types of)

Engine Stalling

Engine Using To Much Oil

Engine Vacuum Leak

Engine Won't Crank or Start

Engine Won't Start, No Fuel

Engine Won't Start, No Spark

Environmental Impact of Air Conditioning

Environmental Issues Caused by Automobiles

EVAP Evaporative Emission Control System

Exhaust Analysis

Exhaust Backpressure

Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

Exhaust Problems

Exhaust Smoke (various causes of)


Fan Clutch

Fault Codes (look up code numbers & definitions)

Fault Codes (most common)

Favorite Cars

Filter (air)

Filter (cabin air)

Filters (oil)

Firing Orders (Chevy)

Firing Orders (Chrysler)

Firing Orders (Ford)

Flash Reprogramming PCMs

Flash Reprogramming PCMs (more)

Flat tire: What To Do If You Have One

Floor Jacks & Jack Stands (Safely Raise Your Vehicle)

Flywheel Resurfacing

Ford 3.0L Duratec V6 Engine Diagnosis

Ford Focus PZEV 150K Sealed Air Filter

Four Wheel Drive Locking Hubs

Four Wheel Locking Hubs (more)

Front-Wheel Drive (FWD)


Fuel Contamination: What Happens If You Put the WRONG Fuel In Your Car

Fuel Economy (causes of poor fuel economy)

Fuel Filter

Fuel Gauges ( Troubleshooting)

Fuel Injection, Fuel Pump, Fuel System

Fuel Injection Diagnostics

Fuel Injection - How It Affects Emissions

Fuel Injection Direct

Fuel Injection Problems

Fuel Injection: Diagnosing Returnless EFI

Fuel Injection (How it Works)

Fuel Injection (Toyota)

Fuel Injection Self-Test Quiz (Download or Print PDF file)

Fuel Injectors (cleaning)

Fuel Injectors (troubleshooting)

Fuel Pump Diagnosis

Fuel Pump Diagnosis Tips from Carter

Fuel Pump (how to replace in-tank pump)

Fuel Pump (electric)

Fuel Pump (mechanical)

Fuel Pump Warranty Issues

Fuel Saving gadgets

Fuel Saving Tips

Fuel System Frequently Asked Questions

Fuel Trim (What Is It?)


Future Automotive Technology


Gas Cap Loose?

Gas Prices

Gasoline Performance Problems

Gasoline (watch out for bad gas)

Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI)

Gasoline Direct Injection Intake Valve Deposits

Gasoline Fuel Treatments

Gasoline Octane Ratings

Global Warming and Climate Change: What Do We Know Now?

Glossary of Automotive Terms A to E

Glossary of Automotive Terms F to P

Glossary of Automotive Terms R to Z

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (CO2)


Head Bolt Basics

Head Bolts (Torque-to-yield Installation & Removal Tips)

Head Gasket Failure: Common Causes

Head Gasket Leaks (How to Fix)

Head Gaskets: Preventing Repeat Failures

Head Gaskets: Why They Fail

Headlight Frequently Asked Questions

Headlights (All About Different Kinds)

Headlights (troubleshooting)

Headlights (high intensity discharge or HID)

Heater Service


Honda Antilock Brakes

Honda Accord Rear Brake Wear Problem

Honda Civic Hybrid Battery Problems

Horsepower & Torque

Hot Weather Driving Tips

Hubs (automatic locking 4WD)

Hybrid Service Tips

Hybrid Car (Should You Buy One?)

Hybrid Vehicle Safety Hazards

Hybrid vs Diesel


Idle Speed Control System

Idle Surge (cause & cure)

Ignition Coil Diagnosis & Testing

Ignition Coils (multi-coil systems)

Ignition Switch Problems

Ignition System

Ignition System Quiz

I/M 240

Instrument Cluster (troubleshoot)

Insurance (auto insurance information)

Intake Valve Deposits in Gas Direct Injection Engines

Interior Pollution Inside Your Car


Jump Starting


Kia Idler Pulley Noise

Key Fob Won't Start Car

Key Fob Remote Won't Unlock Door

Knock Sensors


Leak Down testing

Lean Codes (P0171 & P0174)

LED Headlamps

Lemon Laws

Library of Automotive Repair & Diagnosis Articles

Locking Hubs (4WD)

Low Oil Pressure

Low Oil Pressure - Warning Light On

Larry's Guide to Check Engine Light Diagnostics
(PDF ebook)


MacPherson Struts

Maintenance Chart

Maintenance Recommendations

Maintenance Tips

Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL)

Manifold Absolute Pressure Sensors (MAP)

Mass Airflow Sensors (MAF)

Master Cylinder

Misfire Analysis

Misfire Diagnosis

Misfires (causes of P0300 random misfire code)

Misfire Diagnosis Chrysler 3.5L V6

Mode 06 Diagnostics

Motor Mounts

Motor Mounts (Saturn)

Motor Oil

Motor Oil API Ratings

Motor Oil Specifications 2020

Motorist Assurance Program (MAP)

Muffler (How to Replace)

Mufflers (performance)

Muscle Car Restoration Work

Mitchell 1 DIY eautorepair manuals

Mitchell Repair Information for the Do-it-Yourselfer


No-start Diagnosis

Noise (Brakes)

Noise (Car Noises You Should Not Ignore

Noise (Engine)


OBD II Diagnostic Tips

OBD II Plug-In Emissions Testing

OBD Monitor Not Ready

OBD II System Self-Test Quiz


Octane Ratings

OEM Service Information Websites

Odors Inside Your Car (causes and cures)

OHC Cylinder Head Cutaway


Oil Additives

Oil Changes (How Often?)

Oil Changes (What Technicians Say)

Oil Classifications (API ratings)

Oil Consumption (When Is It Too Much?)

Oil Filters

Oil Leaks

Oil Pressure

Oil Pressure Warning Light On

Oil Pumps

Oil Pump Diagnosis

Oil Pumps High Flow

Oil Pump (High Volume)

Oil Service Intervals

Oil (Synthetic)

Oil Viscosity

Onboard Diagnostics II (OBD II)

OBD II Diagnostics

OBD II Driveability & Emissions Problems

Oxygen Sensors

Oxygen Sensors & emissions

Oxygen Sensor Locations

Oxygen Sensors (wideband)

Overheating (causes)


P0171 & P0174 Lean Codes

P0420 Catalyst Efficiency Code

Parking Brake

Parking Brake (Electronic)

Parts (Which Ones Fail & When)


Pistons (evolution of design)

Piston Rings (steel)

Piston Rings (stock & performance)

Piston Ring End Gap Recommendations

Plateau Cylinder Bore Finish

Poor Fuel Economy

Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV)

Power Brakes

Power Steering (electric)

Power Steering Fluid

Power Steering (GM & Ford variable-assist systems)

Powertrain Control Modules (PCMs)

Powertrain Control Module Performance Tuning

Powertrain Control Modules Flash Reprogramming

Powertrain Control Module Reprogramming (more)

Power Windows

Preventive Maintenance

Push Button Start System



R-1234yf Refrigerant

R134a Ban?

Rack & Pinion Steering (variable-assist)

Rack & Pinion Steering Troubleshooting

Rack & Pinion Steering Inner Tie Rod Sockets

Radiator Repair & Replacement

Random Misfires

Recalls - Don't Ignore Them!

Refrigerants (new)

Refrigerant Contamination

Refrigerant Recovery Machines


Repair Costs To Fix Your Car

Repair Costs: Don't Get Overcharged for Simple Repairs

Repair Facts for Consumers

Repair Fraud, Scams & Rip-Offs

Repair Shops


Repairs (When They Are Needed)

Reprogram PCM

Re-Refined Motor Oil

Ride Control Diagnosis (shocks & struts)

Ride Height

Rotary Valves for Internal Combustion Engines (new technology)


Rotors (composite)

Rotors (design)


Safety Milestones in Automotive History

Safety Tips When Doing Auto Repairs

Safety Ratings Vehicle Crash Tests

Saturn No Start Diagnosis


scantool companion training software ad

Scan Tool Help

Scan Tools (how to buy)

Scan Tools (ABS)

Scan Tools (performance)

Scheduled Maintenance

Scopes (Digital Storage Oscilloscopes)

Self-Driving Cars & Driverless Vehicles



Sensors (engine management systems)

Sensors (types of)

Serpentine Belts

Shock Absorbers & Struts

Spark Knock

Spark Plug Fouling

Spark Plugs

Spark Plugs (ruthenium)

Spark Plug Technology (Iridium & Platinum)

Spark Plugs (Are Original Equipment Best?)

Spark Plug Breakage Problem (2004-2008 Ford 5.4L & 4.6L V8)

Spark Plugs (Bosch Platinum +4)

Spark Plugs & Ignition Performance

Spark Plugs for Waste Spark DIS Ignition Systems

Spark Plugs (Why They Need To Be Replaced)

Spark Plug Wires

Speeding (not a crime!)

Stability Control

Stalling (causes of)

Start Engine Push Button Diagnosis


Starter Diagnosis

Starter Problems

Starter Troubleshooting

Strut Suspensions

Steering & Suspension, Tires & Alignment

Steering (correcting a pull to one side)

Steering (electric)

Steering (rack & pinion)

Steering (variable-assist)

Steering Problems

Steering & Suspension Quiz

Stop-Start Systems

Summer Driving Tips


Supercharging Small Engines (sport compact cars)

Suspension (air ride)

Suspension Inspection

Suspension & strut Repairs

Suspension Vibrations

Synthetic Motor Oil


Technical Service Bulletins & Recalls for Your Vehicle

Technician (rating skills)

Tech Terms


Telematics: The Connected Car

Temperature Warning Light

Test Your Automotive Knowledge Quizzes

Thermostats (How To Diagnose & Replace)

Throttle-By-Wire systems (Electronic Throttle Control)

Throttle Position Sensors (TPS)

Timing Belt (Chevy Aveo 1.6L)

Timing Belt (GM)

Timing Belt (Ford)

Timing Belts (list of interference engines)

Timing Belt (Toyota & Honda)

Timing Belt Warranty Warning

Timing Chains & Belts

Timing Chain Replacement (Mazda & Ford 3.0L DOHC V6)


Tire Care Survey Results

Tire Diagnosis

Tire Expiration Dates (and Dangers)

Tire Failure (causes)

Tire (Flat)

Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS)

Tire Pressure Monitoring System (Ford F150)

Tire Inflation Tips

Tire Rotation

Tires Run-Flat

Tire Safety

Tire Vibration

Tire Wear

Tires - When to Replace & What to Buy

Tires - Are Used Tires Safe?

Tools for Repairing & Maintaining Your Car

Tools: Cordless Power Tools versus Pneumatic Tools

Tool Resources


Torque Converters (basic operation & diagnosis)

Torque Converters (high performance)

Torque-To-Yield (TTY) Head Bolts

Torque Steer in FWD Cars

Torque Wrench (how to use)

Toxic Chemicals In Your Car's Interior

Toyota Prius Diagnostics

Toyota Recall 2005-2008 Corolla & Matrix for Computer Defect

Toyota Unintended Acceleration: Possible Causes

Toyota Steering Recall

TPMS Warning Light

Traction Control

Trailer Hitches

Trailer Brakes (mechanical & electric)

Training Resources


Transmission Diagnosis (automatic)

Transmission Diagnosis (manual)

Transmission (electronic)

Transmission (Chrysler 45RFE)

Transmission (Ford AX4S Windstar & Taurus)

Transmission Recall: 2021-22 Hyundai & KIA Dual Clutch Automatic Transmission

Transmission Fluid (types and applications)

Transmission Fluid (changing)

Transmission Repair (automatic)

Transmission Slipping

Travel Tips

Trouble Codes (Look up numbers & definitions)

Trouble Codes (Most Common Codes & Causes)

Trouble Code Diagnostic Tips

Troubleshooting with Temperature

Tuner Scan Tools


Turbocharger Diagnosis & Repair



Underhood Maintenance: Fluids, Filters, Belts & Hoses

Used Cars (How To Buy a Good Used Car and NOT a Lemon!)

Used Car Dealer Tricks (How NOT to get cheated!)

Used Cars (how to get rid of your old vehicle)

Used Car Inspection Checklist

Used Car Resources

Used Tires


Vacuum Leaks

Valve Failure (causes)

Valve Guide Repairs

Valve Seat Repairs

Valve Spring Diagnosis

Valve Stems (Tire)

Vane Airflow Sensors (VAF)

Variable Cam Timing Codes (Ford)

Variable Valve Timing Basics

Vehicle Manufacturer Websites

Vehicle Reliability Ratings

Vibrations (causes of)

Vibration (Saturn Bad Engine Mount)

Voltage Drop Testing


Warning Lights

Warranty Coverage (new cars by model year)

Water Pump Diagnosis

Welding (Aluminum)

What Goes Wrong With Cars (and When)

Wheel Alignment(Camber, Caster & Toe)

Wheel Alignment Self-Test Quiz (Download or Print PDF file)

Wheel Balancing

Wheel Bearings & Hubs

Wheel Bearing & Seal Service

Wheel Cylinders

Wheel Speed Sensor Diagnosis

Wideband Oxygen Sensors

Windshield Wiper Blades

Windstar Rear Axle Failure Recall

Winterizing Tips

Wrong Fuel in Your Fuel Tank? Here's What You Should and Shouldn't Do


ZDDP - What is it & Why do you need it?

Browse the AA1Car Library of Diagnosis & Repair Articles

Auto Repair Related Resources:

CarleySoftware Quick Reference Repair & Diagnosis Guides

Auto Repair Manuals & Books

OEM Automotive Service Information Websites & Access Fees

Automotive Accessories

Auto Parts

Tools & Equipment

Auto Repair Shops

Automotive Links Directory


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