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How to Replace Your Tires

By Larry Carley copyright AA1Car.com

replace tires with stock or performance tires

Like brake pads, tires wear out and eventually have to be replaced. Most quality brand passenger car tires should last upwards of 60,000 miles with normal driving. Tires can wear out sooner if you drive aggressively, if you don't check the air pressure in your tires and they are underinflated, or if your vehicle has worn or misaligned steering or suspension parts.

A quick visual inspection is all it takes to see if your tires are worn out. Tires should be replaced if the wear bard between the blocks of tread are flush with the surface of the tread, or the depth of the grooves between the treads is 2/32nd inch or less.

You can check tread wear by inserting a penny upside down into the grooves between the tread. If you can see the top of Lincoln's head, your tires are worn out and need to be replaced.

checking tire tread depth with a penny

Some experts now recommend replacing the tires sooner, especially if you live in a wet climate and you drive on rain-soaked roads. The grooves between the blocks of tread on your tires are there so water has a place to escape when you hit a puddle. Rain tires and all-season tires typically have wider grooves that are angled to route water out from under the center of the tire towards the edges of the tread. This helps reduce the risk of hydroplaning that could cause a loss of steering control. If the remaining tread depth is less than 4/32 inch, the tires should be replaced to maximize driving safety.

If you insert a quarter upside down into the tread, the top of Washington's head is 4/32 inch from the edge. So if you can see the top of George's head, you have about 4/32 inch of tread left.

Replacing tires with 4/32 inch of tread isn't as important in dry climates because the grooves in the tread don't have to deal with water. But in wet climates, it can make a significant difference in steering control handling and braking when the roads are wet.

WHAT KIND OF TIRES SHOULD YOU BUY?

If you are happy with the brand and model of tires that are on your vehicle now, buy the same brand and model of tire as before. Original equipment tires are specified by a car maker to meet very specific ride, noise, fuel economy and handling criteria. So replacing same with same will usually maintain the ride, feel and performance of the tires that came as original equipment on your vehicle.

For more information about how original equipment tires compare to aftermarket replacement tires, Click Here to read an article from AutoCarepro News. It gives a tire dealer's perspective on replacement tires.

If you are looking to upgrade some aspect of tire performance when you replace your tires (such as handling, noise reduction, ride smoothness, tire life, wet traction or appearance), the best advice is to do some research on line as to what type of tires might best match your expectations, how other motorists have rated such tires (which can be found on various tire dealer websites), and go to a tire dealer and talk with a salesman about what you want and what they would recommend.

Tires come in a variety of different grades and price ranges. There are differences in temperature ratings, speed ratings, wet and dry traction ratings, tread wear ratings, tread patterns, handling characteristics, noise levels and ride smoothness.

In my opinion, I would NOT buy tires that do not have an "A" Temperature rating, and "A" Traction rating, or a tread wear index rating of less than 300 (unless you want a performance tire with lots of dry pavement grip.

I also recommend speed-rated tires for all applications as these are made with higher-quality materials and construction. For highway driving, I recommend a tire that is rated H or higher (see speed rating info below) for an added measure of safety - even if you never drive that fast.

tire sidewall information

All-Season tires are recommended for most passenger cars and light trucks used for everyday driving and commuting. Performance tires are essential for optimum handling if you drive a sporty or performance cars. Ultra-low profile tires look cool, but are heavier and stiffer than other tires and generally give a rough ride.

At the very least, always buy tires that have the same or better temperature, traction and tread wear ratings as the original tires that came on your vehicle. Do not buy the cheapest tires you can find because you usually get what you pay for. Cheap tires are often crappy tires that wear rapidly, don't handle or brake well, are noisy or rough riding.

What about used tires? A good set of used tires that still have plenty of tread on them can be much less expensive to buy than a set of new tires. But used tires can be risky depending on their condition. For more information on this subject, see Used Tires.

TIRE SPEED RATINGS

The speed rating indicates the maximum speed at which the tire can safely handle without exceeding its design limits. A short burst of speed beyond the tire's maximum speed rating usually won't cause the tire to explode, but sustained driving at speeds beyond the tire's speed rating (especially during hot weather or when carrying a heavy load) does increase the risk of sudden tire failure.

Q Up to 100mph

S Up to 112mph

T Up to 118mph

H Up to 130mph

V Up to 149mph

Z 149mph and over

W Up to 168mph

TIRE SIZING

Unless you are replacing your original wheels with aftermarket custom wheels that have a larger or wider rim size, you have to buy replacement tires that are the same size as the original. The tire size is printed on the sidewall of the tire. A 215/60R 16 size means the tire is 215 millimeters wide, has an aspect ratio of 60 (the height of the sidewall as a percentage of the tread width), and fits a 16-inch wheel.

Most vehicles that are equipped with antilock brake systems or stability control require replacement tires that are the same size as the original. If a different tire and/or wheel size is desired, it may require reprogramming the ABS control module and/or PCM with a scan tool so the system will work properly with the larger or smaller tires. Wider makes no difference. It's the height and circumference of the tires that affects the readings of the wheel speed sensors and vehicle speed sensor.

TIRE PREFERENCES & RECOMMENDATIONS

I have no tire brand preferences as most tire manufacturers (including most private label brands) sell safe tires. However, there can be considerable differences in tire handling, ride quality and tread life between different brands.

Tire model designations are almost meaningless these days because they keep changing almost as fast as cell phones. If a particular model of tire is produced for more than a year , it's a long time. Tire manufacturers are constantly tweaking and altering the tires they produce. Many of these "improvements" or changes have little to do with actual performance changes in a tire, but more with marketing and repositioning the tire against competitors. This makes tire comparisons very difficult because the products are constantly changing.

Consumer Reports does an excellent job of rating and comparing tires. They are not in the business of selling tires, so I trust their evaluations to be unbiased and accurate. But the comparisons get out of date very quickly because of the rapid pace with which tires are constantly being discontinued and replaced with newer models.

Tire Rack also has a wealth of tire information, including consumer reviews of tires people have purchased. Just remember that Tire Rack is in the business of selling tires, so the ratings may be skewed. Same for the consumer reviews. A hundred people may be very satisfied with a particular tire, but one person who is not and posts a negative review can give the impression that a tire is not so good. So keep that in mind when reading customer reviews of tires.

As a general rule, tires that are made with softer compounds provide better dry traction, handling and braking performance, but do not wear as well as tires made with harder compounds. The design of the tread has the greatest influence on noise, while the construction of the sidewalls has the largest impact on ride smoothness. Taller softer sidewalls (higher aspect ratio) usually provide the smoothest ride, while shorter stiffer sidewalls (low aspect ratio tires) provide better cornering and handling control.]

CHEAP CHINA TIRES

Many tires are made in China these days, including tires from many name-brand manufacturers. A tire's country of origin is printed on the sidewall. It should say MADE IN CHINA if that's where it was made.

It's difficult to say which tire brands come from which countries because tire manufacturing is a global enterprise. Most tire companies have factories all over the world. They constantly shift production around from one factory to another depending on local costs, supply and demand. Goodyear and Bridgestone tires, for example, are still mostly made in the USA, but Goodyear does get some of their tires from China. Michelin (who also owns BF Goodrich and Uniroyal brands) still makes many of their tires in the US, but also sources tires from China. So too do Korean tire companies (Hankook & Kumho) and Japanese tire companies (Yokohama and Toyo).

China has made inroads in the US tire market by selling tires at unusually low prices. Their prices have undercut domestic tire manufacturers (some say unfairly), which is why the Obama administration recently imposed a 35% tariff on Chinese tires coming into the US.

Politics and economic issues aside, the main reason why I won't buy Chinese tires is because of their questionable quality. IF a Chinese-made tire is a name-brand and that company has adequate quality control measures in place to assure consistent quality, their Chinese-made tires are probably as safe as any other tire. BUT, many private label and no-name Chinese tires are made in factories where quality control is a joke. They use the cheapest grades of rubber they can buy, and are inconsistent in their manufacturing and curing processes. They also do almost no quality control testing of the tires they produce. This has resulted in numerous safety recalls of Chinese-made tires.

LISTEN TO YOUR TIRE DEALER

The salesperson at your local tire store obviously wants you to buy tires from their store, but they can also help you decide what type of replacement tires are a good match for your lifestyle and the type of driving you do. If you want replacement tires that are quieter, ride smoother, handle better, provide improved wet traction, longer tread life or whatever, tell the salesperson. Rank the qualities you are looking for so they can narrow down the choices. The salesperson should be well acquainted with their product line and should be able to recommend a replacement tire that will make you happy.

Don't put too much emphasis on price. The tire business is extremely competitive, and most stores will match the price of a comparable tire at a competitor's store. Coupons and sales are always great if you can time your tire purchase to take advantage of such marketing tools.

In addition to the price of the tires themselves, you will also have to pay for balancing (mounting is includes), new valve stems, an old tire disposal fee, and tax. If you want road hazard coverage, that's extra, too.

I have bought tires with and without road hazard coverage. Sometimes it has paid for itself, and sometimes it has not. If you have a flat far from home or where there are no stores affiliated with the tires dealer where you bought your tires, you pay for the repairs out of pocket. On the other hand, if you have a blowout and it ruins the tire, and you can get the tire back to the store for the coverage, road hazard insurance will replace the tire for free.

The salesperson may recommend a wheel alignment when you buy new tires. If you old tires show uneven tread wear, or they wore out unusually fast, an alignment check is a good idea. However, if you got 60,000 or more miles out of your old tires, and the tread wear was normal (no shoulder wear or uneven wear), you can probably skip the alignment check.




More Tire Articles:


Watch Out For Old Tires
Used Tires
Why Tires Fail
What To Do If You Have A Flat Tire
Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS)
Tire inflation tips
Tire Valve Stems
Blame It On The Tires
Tire Wear (What to look for, how to reduce it)
Tire Rotation: When & How To Rotate Your Tires
Wheel Balancing
Wheel Alignment
Fixing Common Alignment Problems


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